Mother Teresa – Wikipedia

This article is about Mother Teresa of Calcutta, the Catholic nun and saint. For other uses, see Mother Teresa (disambiguation).



Teresa of Calcutta


Mother Teresa during a visit to Washington D.C in June 1995

Born Anjezë Gonxhe Bojaxhiu

26 August 1910

Üsküp, Kosovo Vilayet, Ottoman Empire

(present-day Skopje, North Macedonia)
Died 5 September 1997 (aged 87)

Calcutta, West Bengal, India

(present-day Kolkata)
Venerated in Roman Catholic Church
Beatified 19 October 2003, Saint Peter’s Square, Vatican City by Pope John Paul II
Canonized 4 September 2016, Saint Peter’s Square, Vatican City by Pope Francis
Major shrine Mother House of the Missionaries of Charity, Kolkata, West Bengal, India
Feast 5 September[1]
  • Nun’s habit
  • Rosary
  • World Youth Day
  • Missionaries of Charity
  • Archdiocese of Calcutta (co-patron) [2][3]
Title Superior general
Religion Catholicism
Nationality Ottoman subject (1910–1912)

Serbian subject (1912–1915)

Bulgarian subject (1915–1918)

Yugoslavian subject (1918–1943)

Yugoslavian citizen (1943–1948)

Indian subject (1948–1950)

Indian citizen[4] (1950–1997)

Albanian citizen[5] (1991–1997)

honorary American citizenship (awarded 1996)

Denomination Catholic
Institute Sisters of Loreto


Missionaries of Charity

Period in office 1950–1997
Successor Sr. Nirmala Joshi, MC

Mother Mary Teresa Bojaxhiu[6] (born Anjezë Gonxhe Bojaxhiu, Albanian: [aˈɲɛzə ˈɡɔndʒɛ bɔjaˈdʒiu]; 26 August 1910 – 5 September 1997), honoured in the Catholic Church as Saint Teresa of Calcutta,[7] was an Albanian-Indian[4] Roman Catholic nun and missionary.[8] She was born in Skopje (now the capital of North Macedonia), then part of the Kosovo Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire. After living in Skopje for eighteen years, she moved to Ireland and then to India, where she lived for most of her life.

In 1950, Teresa founded the Missionaries of Charity, a Roman Catholic religious congregation that had over 4,500 nuns and was active in 133 countries in 2012. The congregation manages homes for people who are dying of HIV/AIDS, leprosy and tuberculosis. It also runs soup kitchens, dispensaries, mobile clinics, children’s and family counselling programmes, as well as orphanages and schools. Members take vows of chastity, poverty, and obedience, and also profess a fourth vow – to give “wholehearted free service to the poorest of the poor.”[9]

Teresa received a number of honors, including the 1962 Ramon Magsaysay Peace Prize and the 1979 Nobel Peace Prize. She was canonised on 4 September 2016, and the anniversary of her death (5 September) is her feast day. A controversial figure during her life and after her death, Teresa was admired by many for her charitable work. She was praised and criticized on various counts, such as for her views on abortion and contraception, and was criticized for poor conditions in her houses for the dying. Her authorized biography was written by Navin Chawla and published in 1992, and she has been the subject of films and other books. On 6 September 2017, Teresa and St. Francis Xavier were named co-patrons of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Calcutta.


Early life

Teresa was born Anjezë Gonxhe (or Gonxha)[10][page needed ] Bojaxhiu (Albanian: [aˈɲɛzə ˈɡɔndʒɛ bɔjaˈdʒiu]; Anjezë is a cognate of “Agnes”; Gonxhe means “rosebud” or “little flower” in Albanian) on 26 August 1910 into a Kosovar Albanian family[11][12][13] in Skopje, Ottoman Empire (now the capital of North Macedonia).[14][15] She was baptised in Skopje, the day after her birth.[10][page needed ] She later considered 27 August, the day she was baptised, her “true birthday”.[14]

She was the youngest child of Nikollë and Dranafile Bojaxhiu (Bernai).[16] Her father, who was involved in Albanian-community politics in Ottoman Macedonia, died in 1919 when she was eight years old.[14][17] He was born in Prizren (today in Kosovo), however, his family was from Mirdita (present-day Albania).[18][19] Her mother may have been from a village near Gjakova.[20]

According to a biography by Joan Graff Clucas, Teresa was in her early years when she was fascinated by stories of the lives of missionaries and their service in Bengal; by age 12, she was convinced that she should commit herself to religious life.[21] Her resolve strengthened on 15 August 1928 as she prayed at the shrine of the Black Madonna of Vitina-Letnice, where she often went on pilgrimages.[22]

Teresa left home in 1928 at age 18 to join the Sisters of Loreto at Loreto Abbey in Rathfarnham, Ireland, to learn English with the intent of becoming a missionary; English was the language of instruction of the Sisters of Loreto in India.[23] She saw neither her mother nor her sister again.[24] Her family lived in Skopje until 1934, when they moved to Tirana.[25]

She arrived in India in 1929[26] and began her novitiate in Darjeeling, in the lower Himalayas,[27] where she learned Bengali and taught at St. Teresa’s School near her convent.[28] Teresa took her first religious vows on 24 May 1931. She chose to be named after Thérèse de Lisieux, the patron saint of missionaries;[29][30] because a nun in the convent had already chosen that name, she opted for its Spanish spelling (Teresa).[31]

Teresa took her solemn vows on 14 May 1937 while she was a teacher at the Loreto convent school in Entally, eastern Calcutta.[14][32][33] She served there for nearly twenty years and was appointed its headmistress in 1944.[34] Although Teresa enjoyed teaching at the school, she was increasingly disturbed by the poverty surrounding her in Calcutta.[35] The Bengal famine of 1943 brought misery and death to the city, and the August 1946 Direct Action Day began a period of Muslim-Hindu violence.[36]

During this visit to Darjeeling by train, she heard the call of her inner conscience. She felt that she should serve the poor by staying with them. She asked for and received permission to leave the school. In 1950 she founded ‘Missionaries of Charity’. She went out to serve humanity with two saris with a blue border.[37]

Missionaries of Charity

On 10 September 1946, Teresa experienced what she later described as “the call within the call” when she traveled by train to the Loreto convent in Darjeeling from Calcutta for her annual retreat. “I was to leave the convent and help the poor while living among them. It was an order. To fail would have been to break the faith.”[38] Joseph Langford later wrote, “Though no one knew it at the time, Sister Teresa had just become Mother Teresa”.[39]

She began missionary work with the poor in 1948,[26] replacing her traditional Loreto habit with a simple, white cotton sari with a blue border. Teresa adopted Indian citizenship, spent several months in Patna to receive basic medical training at Holy Family Hospital and ventured into the slums.[40][41] She founded a school in Motijhil, Kolkata, before she began tending to the poor and hungry.[42] At the beginning of 1949 Teresa was joined in her effort by a group of young women, and she laid the foundation for a new religious community helping the “poorest among the poor”.[43]

Her efforts quickly caught the attention of Indian officials, including the prime minister.[44] Teresa wrote in her diary that her first year was fraught with difficulty. With no income, she begged for food and supplies and experienced doubt, loneliness and the temptation to return to the comfort of convent life during these early months:

Our Lord wants me to be a free nun covered with the poverty of the cross. Today, I learned a good lesson. The poverty of the poor must be so hard for them. While looking for a home I walked and walked till my arms and legs ached. I thought how much they must ache in body and soul, looking for a home, food and health. Then, the comfort of Loreto [her former congregation] came to tempt me. “You have only to say the word and all that will be yours again”, the Tempter kept on saying. … Of free choice, my God, and out of love for you, I desire to remain and do whatever be your Holy will in my regard. I did not let a single tear come.[45]

Missionaries of Charity in traditional saris

On 7 October 1950, Teresa received Vatican permission for the diocesan congregation, which would become the Missionaries of Charity.[46] In her words, it would care for “the hungry, the naked, the homeless, the crippled, the blind, the lepers, all those people who feel unwanted, unloved, uncared for throughout society, people that have become a burden to the society and are shunned by everyone”.[47]

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In 1952, Teresa opened her first hospice with help from Calcutta officials. She converted an abandoned Hindu temple into the Kalighat Home for the Dying, free for the poor, and renamed it Kalighat, the Home of the Pure Heart (Nirmal Hriday).[48] Those brought to the home received medical attention and the opportunity to die with dignity in accordance with their faith: Muslims were read the Quran, Hindus received water from the Ganges, and Catholics received extreme unction.[49] “A beautiful death”, Teresa said, “is for people who lived like animals to die like angels—loved and wanted.”[49]

Nirmal Hriday, Mother Teresa’s Calcutta hospice, in 2007

She opened a hospice for those with leprosy, calling it Shanti Nagar (City of Peace).[50] The Missionaries of Charity established leprosy-outreach clinics throughout Calcutta, providing medication, dressings and food.[51] The Missionaries of Charity took in an increasing number of homeless children; in 1955 Teresa opened Nirmala Shishu Bhavan, the Children’s Home of the Immaculate Heart, as a haven for orphans and homeless youth.[52]

The congregation began to attract recruits and donations, and by the 1960s it had opened hospices, orphanages and leper houses throughout India. Teresa then expanded the congregation abroad, opening a house in Venezuela in 1965 with five sisters.[53] Houses followed in Italy (Rome), Tanzania and Austria in 1968, and during the 1970s the congregation opened houses and foundations in the United States and dozens of countries in Asia, Africa and Europe.[54]

The Missionaries of Charity Brothers was founded in 1963, and a contemplative branch of the Sisters followed in 1976. Lay Catholics and non-Catholics were enrolled in the Co-Workers of Mother Teresa, the Sick and Suffering Co-Workers, and the Lay Missionaries of Charity. Responding to requests by many priests, in 1981 Mother Teresa founded the Corpus Christi Movement for Priests[55] and with Joseph Langford the Missionaries of Charity Fathers in 1984, to combine the vocational aims of the Missionaries of Charity with the resources of the priesthood.[56]

By 1997, the 13-member Calcutta congregation had grown to more than 4,000 sisters who managed orphanages, AIDS hospices and charity centers worldwide, caring for refugees, the blind, disabled, aged, alcoholics, the poor and homeless and victims of floods, epidemics and famine.[57] By 2007, the Missionaries of Charity numbered about 450 brothers and 5,000 sisters worldwide, operating 600 missions, schools and shelters in 120 countries.[58]

International charity

Teresa said, “By blood, I am Albanian. By citizenship, an Indian. By faith, I am a Catholic nun. As to my calling, I belong to the world. As to my heart, I belong entirely to the Heart of Jesus.”[4] Fluent in five languages – Bengali,[59] Albanian, Serbian, English and Hindi – she made occasional trips outside India for humanitarian reasons.[60]

At the height of the Siege of Beirut in 1982, Teresa rescued 37 children trapped in a front-line hospital by brokering a temporary cease-fire between the Israeli army and Palestinian guerrillas.[61] Accompanied by Red Cross workers, she travelled through the war zone to the hospital to evacuate the young patients.[62]

When Eastern Europe experienced increased openness in the late 1980s, Teresa expanded her efforts to Communist countries which had rejected the Missionaries of Charity. She began dozens of projects, undeterred by criticism of her stands against abortion and divorce: “No matter who says what, you should accept it with a smile and do your own work.” She visited Armenia after the 1988 earthquake[63] and met with Nikolai Ryzhkov, Chairman of the Council of Ministers.[64]

Teresa travelled to assist the hungry in Ethiopia, radiation victims at Chernobyl and earthquake victims in Armenia.[65][66][67] In 1991 she returned to Albania for the first time, opening a Missionaries of Charity Brothers home in Tirana.[68]

By 1996, Teresa operated 517 missions in over 100 countries.[69] Her Missionaries of Charity grew from twelve to thousands, serving the “poorest of the poor” in 450 centres worldwide. The first Missionaries of Charity home in the United States was established in the South Bronx area of New York City, and by 1984 the congregation operated 19 establishments throughout the country.[70]

Declining health and death

Teresa had a heart attack in Rome in 1983 while she was visiting Pope John Paul II. Following a second attack in 1989, she received an artificial pacemaker. In 1991, after a bout of pneumonia in Mexico, she had additional heart problems. Although Teresa offered to resign as head of the Missionaries of Charity, in a secret ballot the sisters of the congregation voted for her to stay and she agreed to continue.[71]

In April 1996 she fell, breaking her collarbone, and four months later she had malaria and heart failure. Although Teresa had heart surgery, her health was clearly declining. According to Archbishop of Calcutta Henry Sebastian D’Souza, he ordered a priest to perform an exorcism (with her permission) when she was first hospitalized with cardiac problems because he thought she might be under attack by the devil.[72]

On 13 March 1997 Teresa resigned as head of the Missionaries of Charity, and she died on 5 September.[73] At the time of her death, the Missionaries of Charity had over 4,000 sisters and an associated brotherhood of 300 members operating 610 missions in 123 countries.[74] These included hospices and homes for people with HIV/AIDS, leprosy and tuberculosis, soup kitchens, children’s-and family-counselling programmes, orphanages and schools. The Missionaries of Charity were aided by co-workers numbering over one million by the 1990s.[75]

Teresa lay in repose in an open casket in St Thomas, Calcutta, for a week before her funeral. She received a state funeral from the Indian government in gratitude for her service to the poor of all religions in the country.[76] Assisted by five priests, Cardinal Secretary of State Angelo Sodano, the Pope’s representative, performed the last rites.[77] Teresa’s death was mourned in the secular and religious communities. Prime Minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif called her “a rare and unique individual who lived long for higher purposes. Her life-long devotion to the care of the poor, the sick, and the disadvantaged was one of the highest examples of service to our humanity.”[78] According to former U.N. Secretary-General Javier Pérez de Cuéllar, “She is the United Nations. She is peace in the world.”[78]

Recognition and reception


Teresa was first recognised by the Indian government more than a third of a century earlier, receiving the Padma Shri in 1962 and the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for International Understanding in 1969.[79] She later received other Indian awards, including the Bharat Ratna (India’s highest civilian award) in 1980.[80] Teresa’s official biography, by Navin Chawla, was published in 1992.[81] In Kolkata, she is worshipped as a deity by some Hindus.[82]

To commemorate the 100th anniversary of her birth, the government of India issued a special 5 coin (the amount of money Teresa had when she arrived in India) on 28 August 2010. President Pratibha Patil said, “Clad in a white sari with a blue border, she and the sisters of Missionaries of Charity became a symbol of hope to many – the aged, the destitute, the unemployed, the diseased, the terminally ill, and those abandoned by their families.”[83]

Indian views of Teresa are not uniformly favorable. Aroup Chatterjee, a physician born and raised in Calcutta who was an activist in the city’s slums for years around 1980 before moving to the UK, said that he “never even saw any nuns in those slums”.[84] His research, involving more than 100 interviews with volunteers, nuns and others familiar with the Missionaries of Charity, was described in a 2003 book critical of Teresa.[84] Chatterjee criticized her for promoting a “cult of suffering” and a distorted, negative image of Calcutta, exaggerating work done by her mission and misusing funds and privileges at her disposal.[84][85] According to him, some of the hygiene problems he had criticized (needle reuse, for example) improved after Teresa’s death in 1997.[84]

Bikash Ranjan Bhattacharya, mayor of Kolkata from 2005 to 2010, said that “she had no significant impact on the poor of this city”, glorified illness instead of treating it and misrepresented the city: “No doubt there was poverty in Calcutta, but it was never a city of lepers and beggars, as Mother Teresa presented it.”[86] On the Hindu right, the Bharatiya Janata Party clashed with Teresa over the Christian Dalits but praised her in death and sent a representative to her funeral.[87] Vishwa Hindu Parishad, however, opposed the government decision to grant her a state funeral. Secretary Giriraj Kishore said that “her first duty was to the Church and social service was incidental”, accusing her of favoring Christians and conducting “secret baptisms” of the dying.[88][89] In a front-page tribute, the Indian fortnightly Frontline dismissed the charges as “patently false” and said that they had “made no impact on the public perception of her work, especially in Calcutta”. Praising her “selfless caring”, energy and bravery, the author of the tribute criticized Teresa’s public campaign against abortion and her claim to be non-political.[90]

In February 2015 Mohan Bhagwat, leader of the Hindu right-wing organization Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, said that Teresa’s objective was “to convert the person, who was being served, into a Christian”.[91] Former RSS spokesperson M. G. Vaidhya supported Bhagwat’s assessment, and the organization accused the media of “distorting facts about Bhagwat’s remarks”. Trinamool Congress MP Derek O’Brien, CPI leader Atul Anjan and Delhi chief minister Arvind Kejriwal protested Bhagwat’s statement.[92]


Teresa received the Ramon Magsaysay Award for Peace and International Understanding, given for work in South or East Asia, in 1962. According to its citation, “The Board of Trustees recognises her merciful cognisance of the abject poor of a foreign land, in whose service she has led a new congregation”.[93] By the early 1970s, she was an international celebrity. Teresa’s fame may be partially attributed to Malcolm Muggeridge’s 1969 documentary, Something Beautiful for God, and his 1971 book of the same name. Muggeridge was undergoing a spiritual journey of his own at the time.[94] During filming, footage shot in poor lighting (particularly at the Home for the Dying) was thought unlikely to be usable by the crew. In England, the footage was found to be extremely well-lit and Muggeridge called it a miracle of “divine light” from Teresa.[95] Other crew members said that it was due to a new type of ultra-sensitive Kodak film.[96] Muggeridge later converted to Catholicism.[97]

Around this time, the Catholic world began to honour Teresa publicly. Pope Paul VI gave her the inaugural Pope John XXIII Peace Prize in 1971, commending her work with the poor, display of Christian charity and efforts for peace,[98] and she received the Pacem in Terris Award in 1976.[99] After her death, Teresa progressed rapidly on the road to sainthood.

She was honoured by governments and civilian organisations, and appointed an honorary Companion of the Order of Australia in 1982 “for service to the community of Australia and humanity at large”.[100] The United Kingdom and the United States bestowed a number of awards, culminating in the Order of Merit in 1983 and honorary citizenship of the United States on 16 November 1996.[101] Teresa’s Albanian homeland gave her the Golden Honour of the Nation in 1994,[90] but her acceptance of this and the Haitian Legion of Honour was controversial. Teresa was criticised for implicitly supporting the Duvaliers and corrupt businessmen such as Charles Keating and Robert Maxwell; she wrote to the judge of Keating’s trial, requesting clemency.[90][102]

Universities in India and the West granted her honorary degrees.[90] Other civilian awards included the Balzan Prize for promoting humanity, peace and brotherhood among peoples (1978)[103] and the Albert Schweitzer International Prize (1975).[104] In April 1976 Teresa visited the University of Scranton in northeastern Pennsylvania, where she received the La Storta Medal for Human Service from university president William J. Byron.[105] She challenged an audience of 4,500 to “know poor people in your own home and local neighbourhood”, feeding others or simply spreading joy and love,[106] and continued: “The poor will help us grow in sanctity, for they are Christ in the guise of distress”.[105] In August 1987 Teresa received an honorary doctor of social science degree, in recognition of her service and her ministry to help the destitute and sick, from the university.[107] She spoke to over 4,000 students and members of the Diocese of Scranton[108] about her service to the “poorest of the poor”, telling them to “do small things with great love”.[109]

In 1979, Teresa received the Nobel Peace Prize “for work undertaken in the struggle to overcome poverty and distress, which also constitutes a threat to peace”.[110] She refused the conventional ceremonial banquet for laureates, asking that its $192,000 cost be given to the poor in India[111] and saying that earthly rewards were important only if they helped her to help the world’s needy. When Teresa received the prize she was asked, “What can we do to promote world peace?” She answered, “Go home and love your family.” Building on this theme in her Nobel lecture, she said: “Around the world, not only in the poor countries, but I found the poverty of the West so much more difficult to remove. When I pick up a person from the street, hungry, I give him a plate of rice, a piece of bread, I have satisfied. I have removed that hunger. But a person that is shut out, that feels unwanted, unloved, terrified, the person that has been thrown out from society – that poverty is so hurtable [sic] and so much, and I find that very difficult.” Teresa singled out abortion as “the greatest destroyer of peace today. Because if a mother can kill her own child – what is left for me to kill you and you kill me – there is nothing between.”[112]

Barbara Smoker of the secular humanist magazine The Freethinker criticised Teresa after the Peace Prize award, saying that her promotion of Catholic moral teachings on abortion and contraception diverted funds from effective methods to solve India’s problems.[113] At the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing, Teresa said: “Yet we can destroy this gift of motherhood, especially by the evil of abortion, but also by thinking that other things like jobs or positions are more important than loving.”[114]

During her lifetime, Teresa was among the top 10 women in the annual Gallup’s most admired man and woman poll 18 times, finishing first several times in the 1980s and 1990s.[115] In 1999 she headed Gallup’s List of Most Widely Admired People of the 20th Century,[116] out-polling all other volunteered answers by a wide margin, and was first in all major demographic categories except the very young.[116][117]


According to a paper by Canadian academics Serge Larivée, Geneviève Chénard and Carole Sénéchal, Teresa’s clinics received millions of dollars in donations but lacked medical care, systematic diagnosis, necessary nutrition and sufficient analgesics for those in pain;[118] in the opinion of the three academics, “Mother Teresa believed the sick must suffer like Christ on the cross”.[119] It was said that the additional money might have transformed the health of the city’s poor by creating advanced palliative care facilities.[120][121]

One of Teresa’s most outspoken critics was English journalist, literary critic and antitheist Christopher Hitchens, host of the documentary Hell’s Angel (1994) and author of the essay The Missionary Position: Mother Teresa in Theory and Practice (1995) who wrote in a 2003 article: “This returns us to the medieval corruption of the church, which sold indulgences to the rich while preaching hellfire and continence to the poor. [Mother Teresa] was not a friend of the poor. She was a friend of poverty. She said that suffering was a gift from God. She spent her life opposing the only known cure for poverty, which is the empowerment of women and the emancipation of them from a livestock version of compulsory reproduction.”[122] He accused her of hypocrisy for choosing advanced treatment for her heart condition.[123][124] Hitchens said that “her intention was not to help people”, and that she lied to donors about how their contributions were used. “It was by talking to her that I discovered, and she assured me, that she wasn’t working to alleviate poverty”, he said, “She was working to expand the number of Catholics. She said, ‘I’m not a social worker. I don’t do it for this reason. I do it for Christ. I do it for the church.[125] Although Hitchens thought he was the only witness called by the Vatican, Aroup Chatterjee (author of Mother Teresa: The Untold Story) was also called to present evidence opposing Teresa’s beatification and canonisation;[126] the Vatican had abolished the traditional “devil’s advocate”, which served a similar purpose.[126]

Abortion-rights groups have also criticised Teresa’s stance against abortion and contraception.[127][128][129]

Spiritual life

Analysing her deeds and achievements, Pope John Paul II said: “Where did Mother Teresa find the strength and perseverance to place herself completely at the service of others? She found it in prayer and in the silent contemplation of Jesus Christ, his Holy Face, his Sacred Heart.”[130] Privately, Teresa experienced doubts and struggle in her religious beliefs which lasted nearly 50 years until the end of her life.[131] Teresa expressed grave doubts about God’s existence and pain over her lack of faith:

Where is my faith? Even deep down … there is nothing but emptiness and darkness. … If there be God – please forgive me. When I try to raise my thoughts to Heaven, there is such convicting emptiness that those very thoughts return like sharp knives and hurt my very soul.[132]

Plaque dedicated to Mother Teresa in Wenceslas Square, Olomouc, Czech Republic

Other saints (including Teresa’s namesake Thérèse of Lisieux, who called it a “night of nothingness”) had similar experiences of spiritual dryness.[133] According to James Langford, these doubts were typical and would not be an impediment to canonisation.[133]

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After ten years of doubt, Teresa described a brief period of renewed faith. After Pope Pius XII’s death in 1958, she was praying for him at a requiem mass when she was relieved of “the long darkness: that strange suffering.” However, five weeks later her spiritual dryness returned.[134]

Teresa wrote many letters to her confessors and superiors over a 66-year period, most notably to Calcutta Archbishop Ferdinand Perier and Jesuit priest Celeste van Exem (her spiritual advisor since the formation of the Missionaries of Charity).[135] She requested that her letters be destroyed, concerned that “people will think more of me – less of Jesus.”[94][136]

Semi-abstract painting honoring Mother Teresa

However, the correspondence has been compiled in Mother Teresa: Come Be My Light.[94][137] Teresa wrote to spiritual confidant Michael van der Peet, “Jesus has a very special love for you. [But] as for me, the silence and the emptiness is so great, that I look and do not see – listen and do not hear – the tongue moves [in prayer] but does not speak. … I want you to pray for me – that I let Him have [a] free hand.”

In Deus caritas est (his first encyclical), Pope Benedict XVI mentioned Teresa three times and used her life to clarify one of the encyclical’s main points: “In the example of Blessed Teresa of Calcutta we have a clear illustration of the fact that time devoted to God in prayer not only does not detract from effective and loving service to our neighbour but is in fact the inexhaustible source of that service.”[138] She wrote, “It is only by mental prayer and spiritual reading that we can cultivate the gift of prayer.”[139]

Although her order was not connected with the Franciscan orders, Teresa admired Francis of Assisi[140] and was influenced by Franciscan spirituality. The Sisters of Charity recite the prayer of Saint Francis every morning at Mass during the thanksgiving after Communion, and their emphasis on ministry and many of their vows are similar.[140] Francis emphasised poverty, chastity, obedience and submission to Christ. He devoted much of his life to serving the poor, particularly lepers.[141]


Miracle and beatification

After Teresa’s death in 1997, the Holy See began the process of beatification (the second of three steps towards canonisation) and Kolodiejchuk was appointed postulator by the Diocese of Calcutta. Although he said, “We didn’t have to prove that she was perfect or never made a mistake …”, he had to prove that Teresa’s virtue was heroic. Kolodiejchuk submitted 76 documents, totalling 35,000 pages, which were based on interviews with 113 witnesses who were asked to answer 263 questions.[142]

The process of canonisation requires the documentation of a miracle resulting from the intercession of the prospective saint.[143] In 2002 the Vatican recognised as a miracle the healing of a tumour in the abdomen of Monica Besra, an Indian woman, after the application of a locket containing Teresa’s picture. According to Besra, a beam of light emanated from the picture and her cancerous tumour was cured; however, her husband and some of her medical staff said that conventional medical treatment eradicated the tumour.[144] Ranjan Mustafi, who told The New York Times he had treated Besra, said that the cyst was caused by tuberculosis: “It was not a miracle … She took medicines for nine months to one year.”[145] According to Besra’s husband, “My wife was cured by the doctors and not by any miracle … This miracle is a hoax.”[146] Besra said that her medical records, including sonograms, prescriptions and physicians’ notes, were confiscated by Sister Betta of the Missionaries of Charity. According to Time, calls to Sister Betta and the office of Sister Nirmala (Teresa’s successor as head of the order) elicited no comment. Officials at Balurghat Hospital, where Besra sought medical treatment, said that they were pressured by the order to call her cure miraculous.[146] In February 2000, former West Bengal health minister Partho De ordered a review of Besra’s medical records at the Department of Health in Kolkata. According to De, there was nothing unusual about her illness and cure based on her lengthy treatment. He said that he had refused to give the Vatican the name of a doctor who would certify that Monica Besra’s healing was a miracle.[147]

During Teresa’s beatification and canonisation, the Roman Curia (the Vatican) studied published and unpublished criticism of her life and work. Hitchens and Chatterjee (author of The Final Verdict, a book critical of Teresa) spoke to the tribunal; according to Vatican officials, the allegations raised were investigated by the Congregation for the Causes of Saints.[142] The group found no obstacle to Teresa’s canonisation, and issued its nihil obstat on 21 April 1999.[148][149] Because of the attacks on her, some Catholic writers called her a sign of contradiction.[150] Teresa was beatified on 19 October 2003, and was known by Catholics as “Blessed”.[151]


On 17 December 2015, the Vatican Press Office confirmed that Pope Francis recognised a second miracle attributed to Teresa: the healing of a Brazilian man with multiple brain tumours back in 2008.[152] The miracle first came to the attention of the postulation (officials managing the cause) during the events of World Youth Day 2013 when the pope was in Brazil that July. A subsequent investigation took place in Brazil from 19–26 June 2015 which was later transferred to the Congregation for the Causes of Saints who issued a decree recognizing the investigation to be completed.[152]

Francis canonised her at a ceremony on 4 September 2016 in St. Peter’s Square in Vatican City. Tens of thousands of people witnessed the ceremony, including 15 government delegations and 1,500 homeless people from across Italy.[153][154] It was televised live on the Vatican channel and streamed online; Skopje, Teresa’s hometown, announced a week-long celebration of her canonisation.[153] In India, a special Mass was celebrated by the Missionaries of Charity in Kolkata.[154]

Co-Patron of Calcutta Archdiocese

On 4 September 2017, during a celebration honoring the 1st anniversary of her canonization, Sister Mary Prema Pierick, Superior-General of the Missionaries of Charity, announced that Teresa would be made the co-patron of the Calcutta Archdiocese during a Mass in the Cathedral of the Most Holy Rosary at 5.30 pm on 6 September 2017.[155] On 5 September 2017, Archbishop Thomas D’Souza, who serves as head of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Calcutta, confirmed that Teresa will be named co-patron of the Calcutta Diocese, alongside Francis Xavier.[156][157] On 6 September 2017, about 500 people attended the Mass at a cathedral where Dominique Gomes, the local Vicar General,[158] read the decree instituting her as the second patron saint of the archdiocese.[159] The ceremony was also presided over by D’Souza and the Vatican’s ambassador to India, Giambattista Diquattro, who lead the Mass and inaugurated a bronze statue in the church of Mother Teresa carrying a child.[159]

The Roman Catholic Church declared St. Francis Xavier the first patron saint of Calcutta in 1986.[159]


Teresa has been commemorated by museums and named the patroness of a number of churches. She has had buildings, roads and complexes named after her, including Albania’s international airport. Mother Teresa Day (Dita e Nënë Terezës), 19 October, is a public holiday in Albania. In 2009 the Memorial House of Mother Teresa was opened in her hometown of Skopje, North Macedonia. The Roman Catholic cathedral in Pristina, Kosovo, is named in her honour.[160] The demolition of a historic high school building to make way for the new construction initially sparked controversy in the local community, but the high school was later relocated to a new, more spacious campus. Consecrated on 5 September 2017, it became the first cathedral in Teresa’s honor and the second extant one in Kosovo.[161]

Mother Teresa Women’s University,[162] in Kodaikanal, was established in 1984 as a public university by the government of Tamil Nadu. The Mother Theresa Postgraduate and Research Institute of Health Sciences,[163] in Pondicherry, was established in 1999 by the government of Puducherry. The charitable organisation Sevalaya runs the Mother Teresa Girls Home, providing poor and orphaned girls near the underserved village of Kasuva in Tamil Nadu with free food, clothing, shelter and education.[164] A number of tributes by Teresa’s biographer, Navin Chawla, have appeared in Indian newspapers and magazines.[165][166][167] Indian Railways introduced the “Mother Express”, a new train named after Mother Teresa, on 26 August 2010 to commemorate the centenary of her birth.[168] The Tamil Nadu government organised centenary celebrations honouring Teresa on 4 December 2010 in Chennai, headed by chief minister M Karunanidhi.[169][170] Beginning on 5 September 2013, the anniversary of her death has been designated the International Day of Charity by the United Nations General Assembly.[171]

In 2012, Teresa was ranked number 5 in Outlook India’s poll of the Greatest Indian.[172]

Film and literature

Documentaries and books

  • Teresa is the subject of the 1969 documentary film and 1972 book, Something Beautiful for God, by Malcolm Muggeridge.[173] The film has been credited with drawing the Western world’s attention to Mother Teresa.
  • Christopher Hitchens’ 1994 documentary, Hell’s Angel, argues that Teresa urged the poor to accept their fate; the rich are portrayed as favoured by God.[174][175] It was the precursor of Hitchens’ essay, The Missionary Position: Mother Teresa in Theory and Practice.
  • Mother of The Century (2001) and Mother Teresa (2002) are short documentary films, about the life and work of Mother Teresa among the poor of India, directed by Amar Kumar Bhattacharya. They were produced by the Films Division of the Government of India.[176][177]

Dramatic films and television

  • Mother Teresa appeared in Bible Ki Kahaniyan, an Indian Christian show based on the Bible which aired on DD National during the early 1990s. She introduced some of the episodes, laying down the importance of the Bible’s message.[178]
  • Geraldine Chaplin played Teresa in Mother Teresa: In the Name of God’s Poor, which received a 1997 Art Film Festival award.[179]
  • She was played by Olivia Hussey in a 2003 Italian television miniseries, Mother Teresa of Calcutta.[180] Re-released in 2007, it received a CAMIE award.[181]
  • Teresa was played by Juliet Stevenson in the 2014 film The Letters, which was based on her letters to Vatican priest Celeste van Exem.[182]
  • Mother Teresa, played by Cara Francis the FantasyGrandma, rap battled Sigmund Freud in Epic Rap Battles of History, a comedy rap YouTube series created by Nice Peter and Epic Lloyd. The Rap was released on YouTube 22 September 2019.[183]
  • In the 2020 animated film Soul, Mother Teresa briefly appears as one of 22’s past mentors.

See also

  • Abdul Sattar Edhi
  • Albanians
  • List of Albanians
  • List of female Nobel laureates
  • The Greatest Indian
  • Roman Catholicism in Albania
  • Roman Catholicism in Kosovo
  • Roman Catholicism in North Macedonia


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  182. ^ Schager, Nick (4 December 2015). “Film Review: ‘The Letters’ “. Variety. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
  183. ^ Battles of History, Epic Rap (22 September 2019). “Mother Teresa vs Sigmund Freud. Epic Rap Battles of History”. Retrieved 5 November 2019.


  • Alpion, Gezim. Mother Teresa: Saint or Celebrity?. London: Routledge Press, 2007. ISBN Đang cập nhật
  • Banerjee, Sumanta (2004), “Revisiting Kolkata as an ‘NRB’ [non-resident Bengali]”, Economic and Political Weekly, Vol. 39, No. 49 ( 4–10 Dec 2004), pp. 5203–5205
  • Benenate, Becky and Joseph Durepos (eds). Mother Teresa: No Greater Love (Fine Communications, 2000) ISBN Đang cập nhật
  • Bindra, Satinder (7 September 2001). “Archbishop: Mother Teresa underwent exorcism”. World. Archived from the original on 17 December 2006. Retrieved 23 October 2006.
  • Chatterjee, Aroup. Mother Teresa: The Final Verdict (Meteor Books, 2003). ISBN Đang cập nhật, introduction and first three chapters of fourteen (without pictures). Critical examination of Agnes Bojaxhiu’s life and work.
  • Chawla, Navin. Mother Teresa. Rockport, Mass: Element Books, 1996. ISBN Đang cập nhật
  • Chawla, Navin. Mother Teresa: The Authorized Biography. Diane Pub Co. (March 1992). ISBN Đang cập nhật. First published by Sinclair-Stevenson, UK (1992), since translated into 14 languages in India and abroad. Indian language editions include Hindi, Bengali, Gujarati, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu, and Kannada. The foreign language editions include French, German, Dutch, Spanish, Italian, Polish, Japanese, and Thai. In both Indian and foreign languages, there have been multiple editions. The bulk of royalty income goes to charity.
  • Chawla, Navin. The miracle of faith, article in the Hindu dated 25 August 2007 “The miracle of faith”
  • Chawla, Navin. Touch the Poor … – article in India Today dated 15 September 1997 ” Touch the Poor …”
  • Chawla, Navin. The path to Sainthood, article in The Hindu dated Saturday, 4 October 2003 ” The path to Sainthood “
  • Chawla, Navin. In the shadow of a saint, article in The Indian Express dated 5 September 2007 ” In the shadow of a saint “
  • Chawla, Navin. Mother Teresa and the joy of giving, article in The Hindu dated 26 August 2008 ” Mother Teresa and the joy of giving”
  • Clark, David, (2002), “Between Hope And Acceptance: The Medicalisation Of Dying”, British Medical Journal, Vol. 324, No. Đang cập nhật April 2002), pp. 905–907
  • Clucas, Joan. Mother Teresa. New York: Chelsea House, 1988. ISBN Đang cập nhật
  • Dwivedi, Brijal. Mother Teresa: Woman of the Century
  • Egan, Eileen and Kathleen Egan, OSB. Prayertimes with Mother Teresa: A New Adventure in Prayer, Doubleday, 1989. ISBN Đang cập nhật.
  • Greene, Meg. Mother Teresa: A Biography, Greenwood Press, 2004. ISBN Đang cập nhật
  • Hitchens, Christopher (1995). The Missionary Position: Mother Teresa in Theory and Practice. London: Verso. ISBN Đang cập nhật.
  • Hitchens, Christopher (20 October 2003). “Mommie Dearest”. Slate. Archived from the original on 13 August 2014. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
  • Kwilecki, Susan and Loretta S. Wilson, “Was Mother Teresa Maximizing Her Utility? An Idiographic Application of Rational Choice Theory”, Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, Vol. 37, No. 2 (Jun. 1998), pp. 205–221
  • (in French) Larivée, Serge (Université de Montréal), Carole Sénéchal (University of Ottawa), and Geneviève Chénard (Université de Montréal). “Les côtés ténébreux de Mère Teresa.” Studies in Religion/Sciences Religieuses. September 2013 vol. 42 no. 3, p. 319–345. Published online before print 15 January 2013, doi:10.1177/Đang cập nhật. Available at SAGE Journals.
  • Le Joly, Edward. Mother Teresa of Calcutta. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1983. ISBN Đang cập nhật.
  • Livermore, Colette, Hope Endures: Leaving Mother Teresa, Losing Faith, and Searching for Meaning. Free Press (2008) ISBN Đang cập nhật.
  • Macpherson, C. (2009) “Undertreating pain violates ethical principles”, Journal of Medical Ethics, Vol. 35, No. 10 (October 2009), pp. 603–606
  • McCarthy, Colman, The Washington Post, 6 September 1997 Nobel Winner Aided the Poorest, accessed 2 February 2014
  • Mehta & Veerendra Raj & Vimla, Mother Teresa Inspiring Incidents, Publications division, Ministry of I&B, Govt. of India, 2004, ISBN Đang cập nhật.
  • Muggeridge, Malcolm. Something Beautiful for God. London: Collins, 1971.ISBN Đang cập nhật.
  • Muntaykkal, T.T. Blessed Mother Teresa: Her Journey to Your Heart. ISBN Đang cập nhật. ISBN Đang cập nhật-X. “Book Review”. Archived from the original on 9 February 2006..
  • Panke, Joan T. (2002), “Not a Sad Place”, The American Journal of Nursing, Vol. 102, No. 9 (Sep. 2002), p. 13
  • Raghu Rai and Navin Chawla. Faith and Compassion: The Life and Work of Mother Teresa. Element Books Ltd. (December 1996). ISBN Đang cập nhật. Translated also into Dutch and Spanish.
  • Rajagopal MR, Joranson DE, and Gilson AM (2001), “Medical use, misuse and diversion of opioids in India”, The Lancet, Vol. 358, 14 July 2001, pp. 139–143
  • Rajagopal MR, and Joranson DE (2007), “India: Opioid availability – An update”, The Journal of Pain Symptom Management, Vol. 33:615–622.
  • Rajagopal MR (2011), interview with the UN Office on Drugs and Crime, April 2011 India: The principle of balance to make opioids accessible for palliative care
  • Scott, David. A Revolution of Love: The Meaning of Mother Teresa. Chicago: Loyola Press, 2005. ISBN Đang cập nhật.
  • Sebba, Anne. Mother Teresa: Beyond the Image. New York: Doubleday, 1997. ISBN Đang cập nhật.
  • Slavicek, Louise. Mother Teresa. New York: Infobase Publishing, 2007. ISBN Đang cập nhật.
  • Smoker, Barbara (1 February 1980). “Mother Teresa – Sacred Cow?”. The Freethinker. Archived from the original on 5 September 2014. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
  • Spink, Kathryn. Mother Teresa: A Complete Authorized Biography. New York: HarperCollins, 1997. ISBN Đang cập nhật
  • Teresa, Mother et al., Mother Teresa: In My Own Words. Gramercy Books, 1997. ISBN Đang cập nhật.
  • Teresa, Mother, Mother Teresa: Come Be My Light: The Private Writings of the “Saint of Calcutta”, edited with commentary by Brian Kolodiejchuk, New York: Doubleday, 2007. ISBN Đang cập nhật.
  • Williams, Paul. Mother Teresa. Indianapolis: Alpha Books, 2002. ISBN Đang cập nhật.
  • Wüllenweber, Walter. “Nehmen ist seliger denn geben. Mutter Teresa—wo sind ihre Millionen?” Stern (illustrated German weekly), 10 September 1998. English translation.
  • Official website
  • Mother Teresa memorial at Eternal Word Television Network (EWTN)
  • Mother Teresa memorial with gallery (in Russian)
  • Mother Teresa on
  • “Mother Teresa collected news and commentary”. The New York Times.
  • Appearances on C-SPAN
  • Mother Teresa at Missionaries of Charity Fathers
  • “Whatsoever You Do …” Speech at National Prayer Breakfast. Washington, D.C.: Priests for Life. 3 February 1994.
  • Noonan, Peggy (February 1998). “Still, Small Voice”. Crisis. 16 (2): 12–17. Mother Teresa broke almost all the rules of good speech writing during her National Prayer Breakfast address in 1994, but delivered an enormously powerful and deeply memorable speech.
  • Parenti, Michael (22 October 2007). “Mother Teresa, John Paul II, and the Fast-Track Saints”. Common Dreams.
  • Mother Teresa contrasts:
    • Van Biema, David (23 August 2007). “Mother Teresa’s Crisis of Faith”. Time. Jesus has a very special love for you. [But] as for me —The silence and the emptiness is so great —that I look and do not see, —Listen and do not hear.
    • “From Sister to Mother to Saint: The journey of Mother Teresa”. News Karnataka. 31 August 2016. By blood, I am Albanian. By citizenship, an Indian. By faith, I am a Catholic nun. As to my calling, I belong to the world. As to my heart, I belong entirely to the Heart of Jesus.

Awards for Mother Teresa

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  • Mary Clubwala Jadhav (1955)
  • R. S. Subbalakshmi (1958)
  • Sailabala Das (1959)
  • Lakshman Singh Jangpangi (1959)
  • Nanabhai Bhatt (1960)
  • Bina Das (1960)
  • Sophia Wadia (1960)
  • Kamalabai Hospet (1961)
  • Mithuben Petit (1961)
  • N. Ramaswami Ayyar (1962)
  • Mother Teresa (1962)
  • Brij Krishna Chandiwala (1963)
  • Leela Sumant Moolgaokar (1963)
  • Brij Krishna Chandiwala (1963)
  • Leela Sumant Moolgaokar (1963)
  • Ambujammal (1964)
  • Mona Chandravati Gupta (1965)
  • Lakshmi Mazumdar (1965)
  • Gordhandas Bhagwandas Narottamdas (1965)
  • John Richardson (1965)
  • Manibhai Desai (1968)
  • Bhaurao Gaikwad (1968)
  • Shalini Moghe (1968)
  • Sis Ram Ola (1968)
  • Kalyan Singh Gupta (1969)
  • Mangru Ganu Uikey (1969)
  • Indumati Chimanlal Sheth (1970)
  • Maniben Kara (1970)
  • Baba Amte (1971)
  • Robin Banerjee (1971)
  • Lila Ramkumar Bhargava (1971)
  • Savita Behen (1971)
  • Pandurang Dharmaji Jadhav (1971)
  • Yudhvir Singh (1971)
  • Avabai Bomanji Wadia (1971)
  • Badri Prasad Bajoria (1972)
  • Kanta Saroop Krishen (1972)
  • Iyyanki Venkata Ramanayya (1972)
  • Chandraprabha Saikiani (1972)
  • Sarojini Varadappan (1973)
  • Queenie H. C. Captain (1974)
  • L. Kijungluba Ao (1976)
  • Bishambhar Nath Pande (1976)
  • Ismail Ahmed Cachalia (1977)
  • Dhani Prem (1977)
  • Kunwar Singh Negi (1981)
  • Bhagat Puran Singh (1981)
  • Claire Vellut (1981)
  • Swami Kalyandev (1982)
  • Shiv Dutt Upadhyaya (1982)
  • M. P. Nachimuthu (1983)
  • Omem Moyong Deori (1984)
  • Zainulabedin Gulamhusain Rangoonwala (1984)
  • Ela Bhatt (1985)
  • Ratnappa Kumbhar (1985)
  • Anutai Wagh (1985)
  • Chandi Prasad Bhatt (1986)
  • Mahasweta Devi (1986)
  • Krishan Dev Dewan (1986)
  • Tushar Kanjilal (1986)
  • Avdhash Kaushal (1986)
  • Narayan Singh Manaklao (1986)
  • Bunker Roy (1986)
  • Begum Zaffar Ali (1987)
  • Jaya Arunachalam (1987)
  • Darshan Singh Vohra (1988)
  • Mithu Alur (1989)
  • Vedaratnam Appakutti (1989)
  • Rajmohini Devi (1989)
  • Krishnammal Jagannathan (1989)
  • Mag Raj Jain (1989)
  • Edward Kutchat (1989)
  • Anna Hazare (1990)
  • Renana Jhabvala (1990)
  • Silverine Swer (1990)
  • Silverine Swer (1991)
  • Vimla Dang (1991)
  • T. G. K. Menon (1991)
  • Jagdish Kashibhai Patel (1991)
  • D. Y. Patil (1991)
  • Sundaram Ramakrishnan (1991)
  • Kantilal Hastimal Sancheti (1991)
  • Shanthi Ranganathan (1992)
  • Vidyaben Shah (1992)
  • Leonarda Angela Casiraghi (1998)
  • Antony Padiyara (1998)
  • Shantha Sinha (1998)
  • Kanta Tyagi (1998)
  • Acharya Ramamurti (1999)
  • T. Sailo (1999)
  • Natwar Thakkar (1999)
  • Neidonuo Angami (2000)
  • Jagan Nath Kaul (2000)
  • Patricia Mukhim (2000)
  • Janaky Athi Nahappan (2000)
  • Hanumappa Sudarshan (2000)
  • Rabindra Nath Upadhyay (2000)
  • Tulasi Munda (2001)
  • Norma Alvares (2002)
  • Prakash Amte (2002)
  • Kiran Martin (2002)
  • Prema Narendra Purao (2002)
  • Sivananda Rajaram (2002)
  • Verna Elizabeth Watre Ingty (2003)
  • Queenie Rynjah (2004)
  • Hema Bharali (2005)
  • Nana Chudasama (2005)
  • Lalsawma (2005)
  • Theilin Phanbuh (2005)
  • Gladys Staines (2005)
  • Suwalal Bafna (2006)
  • Anil Prakash Joshi (2006)
  • Sudha Murty (2006)
  • Sudha Varghese (2006)
  • Melhupra Vero (2006)
  • Runa Banerjee (2007)
  • S. M. Cyril (2007)
  • M. A. Yusuff Ali (2008)
  • Sheela Borthakur (2008)
  • Karuna Mary Braganza (2008)
  • V. R. Gowrishankar (2008)
  • Kshama Metre (2008)
  • Kutikuppala Surya Rao (2008)
  • Madan Mohan Sabharwal (2008)
  • Vikramjit Singh Sahney (2008)
  • Bilkees Latif (2009)
  • Keepu Tsering Lepcha (2009)
  • C. K. Menon (2009)
  • Joseph H. Pereira (2009)
  • Sunil Kanti Roy (2009)
  • Mitraniketan Viswanathan (2009)
  • Anu Aga (2010)
  • J. R. Gangaramani (2010)
  • Deep Joshi (2010)
  • Sudha Kaul (2010)
  • Ayekpam Tomba Meetei (2010)
  • Kurian John Melamparambil (2010)
  • Sudhir M. Parikh (2010)
  • Kranti Shah (2010)
  • Baba Sewa Singh (2010)
  • Mamraj Agrawal (2011)
  • Jockin Arputham (2011)
  • Nomita Chandy (2011)
  • Martha Chen (2011)
  • Azad Moopen (2011)
  • Sheela Patel (2011)
  • Anita Reddy (2011)
  • Kanubhai Hasmukhbhai Tailor (2011)
  • Shamshad Begum (2012)
  • Reeta Devi (2012)
  • P. K. Gopal (2012)
  • G. Muniratnam (2012)
  • Niranjan Pranshankar Pandya (2012)
  • Uma Tuli (2012)
  • S. P. Varma (2012)
  • Phoolbasan Bai Yadav (2012)
  • Binny Yanga (2012)
  • Jharna Dhara Chowdhury (2013)
  • S. K. M. Maeilanandhan (2013)
  • Nileema Mishra (2013)
  • Reema Nanavati (2013)
  • Manju Bharat Ram (2013)
  • Narendra Dabholkar (2014)
  • Mukul Chandra Goswami (2014)
  • Durga Jain (2014)
  • J. L. Kaul (2014)
  • Mathur Savani (2014)
  • Ashok Bhagat (2015)
  • Janak Palta McGilligan (2015)
  • Meetha Lal Mehta (2015)
  • Veerendra Raj Mehta (2015)
  • Bimla Poddar (2015)
  • Madeleine Herman de Blic (2016)
  • Madhu Pandit Dasa (2016)
  • Ajoy Kumar Dutta (2016)
  • Damal Kandalai Srinivasan (2016)
  • Sunitha Krishnan (2016)
  • Sundar Menon (2016)
  • Arunachalam Muruganantham (2016)
  • P. Gopinathan Nair (2016)
  • Sudharak Olwe (2016)
  • Girish Bharadwaj (2017)
  • Appasaheb Dharmadhikari (2017)
  • Bipin Ganatra (2017)
  • Karimul Haque (2017)
  • Anuradha Koirala (2017)
  • Suhas Vitthal Mapuskar (2017)
  • Daripalli Ramaiah (2017)
  • Balbir Singh Seechewal (2017)
  • Damodar Ganesh Bapat (2018)
  • Sitavva Joddati (2018)
  • Subhasini Mistry (2018)
  • Sulagitti Narasamma (2018)
  • Abdullah Bin Othman (2018)
  • Sampat Ramteke (2018)
  • Draupadi Ghimiray (2019)
  • Bulu Imam (2019)
  • Friederike Irina Bruning (2019)
  • Chinna Pillai (2019)
  • Shabbir Sayyad (2019)
  • Jyoti Kumar Sinha (2019)
  • Saalumarada Thimmakka (2019)
  • Jamuna Tudu (2019)
  • Muktaben Pankajkumar Dagli (2019)
  • Jagdish Lal Ahuja (2020)
  • Popatrao Baguji Pawar (2020)
  • Usha Chaumar (2020)
  • Lia Diskin (2020)
  • Tulsi Gowda (2020)
  • Harekala Hajabba (2020)
  • Tetsu Nakamura (2020)
  • S. Ramakrishnan (2020)
  • Sayed Mehboob Shah Qadri (2020)
  • Mohammed Sharif (2020)
  • Ramjee Singh (2020)
  • Agus Indra Udayana (2020)
  • Sundaram Verma (2020)
  • Sindhutai Sapkal (2021)
  • Girish Prabhune (2021)
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Laureates of the Nobel Peace Prize

  • 1901: Henry Dunant / Frédéric Passy
  • 1902: Élie Ducommun / Charles Gobat
  • 1903: Randal Cremer
  • 1904: Institut de Droit International
  • 1905: Bertha von Suttner
  • 1906: Theodore Roosevelt
  • 1907: Ernesto Moneta / Louis Renault
  • 1908: Klas Arnoldson / Fredrik Bajer
  • 1909: A. M. F. Beernaert / Paul Estournelles de Constant
  • 1910: International Peace Bureau
  • 1911: Tobias Asser / Alfred Fried
  • 1912: Elihu Root
  • 1913: Henri La Fontaine
  • 1914
  • 1915
  • 1916
  • 1917: International Committee of the Red Cross
  • 1918
  • 1919: Woodrow Wilson
  • 1920: Léon Bourgeois
  • 1921: Hjalmar Branting / Christian Lange
  • 1922: Fridtjof Nansen
  • 1923
  • 1924
  • 1925: Austen Chamberlain / Charles Dawes
  • 1926: Aristide Briand / Gustav Stresemann
  • 1927: Ferdinand Buisson / Ludwig Quidde
  • 1928
  • 1929: Frank B. Kellogg
  • 1930: Nathan Söderblom
  • 1931: Jane Addams / Nicholas Butler
  • 1932
  • 1933: Norman Angell
  • 1934: Arthur Henderson
  • 1935: Carl von Ossietzky
  • 1936: Carlos Saavedra Lamas
  • 1937: Robert Cecil
  • 1938: Nansen International Office for Refugees
  • 1939
  • 1940
  • 1941
  • 1942
  • 1943
  • 1944: International Committee of the Red Cross
  • 1945: Cordell Hull
  • 1946: Emily Balch / John Mott
  • 1947: Friends Service Council / American Friends Service Committee
  • 1948
  • 1949: John Boyd Orr
  • 1950: Ralph Bunche
  • 1951: Léon Jouhaux
  • 1952: Albert Schweitzer
  • 1953: George C. Marshall
  • 1954: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
  • 1955
  • 1956
  • 1957: Lester B. Pearson
  • 1958: Georges Pire
  • 1959: Philip Noel-Baker
  • 1960: Albert Luthuli
  • 1961: Dag Hammarskjöld
  • 1962: Linus Pauling
  • 1963: International Committee of the Red Cross / League of Red Cross Societies
  • 1964: Martin Luther King Jr.
  • 1965: UNICEF
  • 1966
  • 1967
  • 1968: René Cassin
  • 1969: International Labour Organization
  • 1970: Norman Borlaug
  • 1971: Willy Brandt
  • 1972
  • 1973: Lê Đức Thọ (declined award) / Henry Kissinger
  • 1974: Seán MacBride / Eisaku Satō
  • 1975: Andrei Sakharov
  • 1976: Betty Williams / Mairead Corrigan
  • 1977: Amnesty International
  • 1978: Anwar Sadat / Menachem Begin
  • 1979: Mother Teresa
  • 1980: Adolfo Pérez Esquivel
  • 1981: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
  • 1982: Alva Myrdal / Alfonso García Robles
  • 1983: Lech Wałęsa
  • 1984: Desmond Tutu
  • 1985: International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War
  • 1986: Elie Wiesel
  • 1987: Óscar Arias
  • 1988: UN Peacekeeping Forces
  • 1989: Tenzin Gyatso (14th Dalai Lama)
  • 1990: Mikhail Gorbachev
  • 1991: Aung San Suu Kyi
  • 1992: Rigoberta Menchú
  • 1993: Nelson Mandela / F. W. de Klerk
  • 1994: Shimon Peres / Yitzhak Rabin / Yasser Arafat
  • 1995: Pugwash Conferences / Joseph Rotblat
  • 1996: Carlos Belo / José Ramos-Horta
  • 1997: International Campaign to Ban Landmines / Jody Williams
  • 1998: John Hume / David Trimble
  • 1999: Médecins Sans Frontières
  • 2000: Kim Dae-jung
  • 2001: United Nations / Kofi Annan
  • 2002: Jimmy Carter
  • 2003: Shirin Ebadi
  • 2004: Wangari Maathai
  • 2005: International Atomic Energy Agency / Mohamed ElBaradei
  • 2006: Grameen Bank / Muhammad Yunus
  • 2007: Al Gore / Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
  • 2008: Martti Ahtisaari
  • 2009: Barack Obama
  • 2010: Liu Xiaobo
  • 2011: Ellen Johnson Sirleaf / Leymah Gbowee / Tawakkol Karman
  • 2012: European Union
  • 2013: Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
  • 2014: Kailash Satyarthi / Malala Yousafzai
  • 2015: Tunisian National Dialogue Quartet
  • 2016: Juan Manuel Santos
  • 2017: International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons
  • 2018: Denis Mukwege / Nadia Murad
  • 2019: Abiy Ahmed
  • 2020: World Food Programme
  • v
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1979 Nobel Prize laureates

  • Herbert C. Brown (United States)
  • Georg Wittig (Germany)

Mother Teresa - Wikipedia

  • Odysseas Elytis (Greece)
  • Mother Teresa (India)
  • Sheldon Lee Glashow (United States)
  • Abdus Salam (Pakistan)
  • Steven Weinberg (United States)
Physiology or Medicine
  • Allan MacLeod Cormack (United States)
  • Godfrey Hounsfield (United Kingdom)
Economic Sciences
  • Theodore Schultz (United States)
  • W. Arthur Lewis (St. Lucia / United States)
Nobel Prize recipients
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Templeton Prize laureates

  • Mother Teresa (1973)
  • Brother Roger (1974)
  • Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1975)
  • Leo Josef Suenens (1976)
  • Chiara Lubich (1977)
  • Thomas F. Torrance (1978)
  • Nikkyō Niwano (1979)
  • Ralph Wendell Burhoe (1980)
  • Cicely Saunders (1981)
  • Billy Graham (1982)
  • Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn (1983)
  • Michael Bourdeaux (1984)
  • Alister Hardy (1985)
  • James I. McCord (1986)
  • Stanley Jaki (1987)
  • Inamullah Khan (1988)
  • Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker & George MacLeod (1989)
  • Baba Amte & Charles Birch (1990)
  • Immanuel Jakobovits (1991)
  • Kyung-Chik Han (1992)
  • Charles Colson (1993)
  • Michael Novak (1994)
  • Paul Davies (1995)
  • Bill Bright (1996)
  • Pandurang Shastri Athavale (1997)
  • Sigmund Sternberg (1998)
  • Ian Barbour (1999)
  • Freeman Dyson (2000)
  • Arthur Peacocke (2001)
  • John Polkinghorne (2002)
  • Holmes Rolston III (2003)
  • George F. R. Ellis (2004)
  • Charles H. Townes (2005)
  • John D. Barrow (2006)
  • Charles Taylor (2007)
  • Michał Heller (2008)
  • Bernard d’Espagnat (2009)
  • Francisco J. Ayala (2010)
  • Martin Rees (2011)
  • 14th Dalai Lama (2012)
  • Desmond Tutu (2013)
  • Tomáš Halík (2014)
  • Jean Vanier (2015)
  • Jonathan Sacks (2016)
  • Alvin Plantinga (2017)
  • Abdullah II of Jordan (2018)
  • Marcelo Gleiser (2019)
  • Francis Collins (2020)
  • Jane Goodall (2021)
  • v
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Bharat Ratna Awardees

  • C. Rajagopalachari, S. Radhakrishnan, and C. V. Raman (1954)
  • Bhagavan Das, M. Visvesvaraya, and Jawaharlal Nehru (1955)
  • Govind Ballabh Pant (1957)
  • Dhondo Keshav Karve (1958)
  • Bidhan Chandra Roy and Purushottam Das Tandon (1961)
  • Rajendra Prasad (1962)
  • Zakir Husain and Pandurang Vaman Kane (1963)
  • Lal Bahadur Shastri (1966)
  • Indira Gandhi (1971)
  • V. V. Giri (1975)
  • K. Kamaraj (1976)
  • Mother Teresa (1980)
  • Vinoba Bhave (1983)
  • Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (1987)
  • M. G. Ramachandran (1988)
  • B. R. Ambedkar and Nelson Mandela (1990)
  • Rajiv Gandhi, Vallabhbhai Patel, and Morarji Desai (1991)
  • Abul Kalam Azad, J. R. D. Tata, and Satyajit Ray (1992)
  • Gulzarilal Nanda, Aruna Asaf Ali, and A. P. J. Abdul Kalam (1997)
  • M. S. Subbulakshmi and C. Subramaniam (1998)
  • Jayaprakash Narayan, Amartya Sen, Gopinath Bordoloi, and Ravi Shankar (1999)
  • Lata Mangeshkar and Bismillah Khan (2001)
  • Bhimsen Joshi (2008)
  • C. N. R. Rao and Sachin Tendulkar (2014)
  • Madan Mohan Malaviya and Atal Bihari Vajpayee (2015)
  • Nanaji Deshmukh, Bhupen Hazarika, and Pranab Mukherjee (2019)
  • v
  • t
  • e

Ramon Magsaysay Award winners of India

  • Amitabha Chowdhury
  • Anshu Gupta
  • Aruna Roy
  • Arun Shourie
  • Arvind Kejriwal
  • Baba Amte
  • Banoo Jehangir Coyaji
  • Bezwada Wilson
  • Bharat Vatwani
  • B. G. Verghese
  • Chandi Prasad Bhatt
  • C. D. Deshmukh
  • Dara Nusserwanji Khurody
  • Deep Joshi
  • Ela Bhatt
  • Gour Kishore Ghosh
  • Harish Hande
  • Jockin Arputham
  • James Michael Lyngdoh
  • Jayaprakash Narayan
  • Kamaladevi Chattopadhyay
  • Kiran Bedi
  • Kulandei Francis
  • K. V. Subbanna
  • Lakshmi Chand Jain
  • Laxminarayan Ramdas
  • Mabelle Arole
  • Mahasweta Devi
  • Mahesh Chandra Mehta
  • Manibhai Desai
  • Mandakini Amte
  • Mother Teresa
  • M. S. Subbulakshmi
  • M. S. Swaminathan
  • Nileema Mishra
  • Palagummi Sainath
  • Pandurang Shastri Athavale
  • Prakash Amte
  • P. K. Sethi
  • Rajendra Singh
  • Ravi Shankar
  • Ravish Kumar
  • R. K. Laxman
  • Rajanikant Arole
  • Sanjiv Chaturvedi
  • Satyajit Ray
  • Sombhu Mitra
  • Sandeep Pandey
  • Shantha Sinha
  • Sonam Wangchuk
  • T. M. Krishna
  • T. N. Seshan
  • Tribhuvandas Kishibhai Patel
  • V. Shanta
  • Verghese Kurien
  • Vinoba Bhave

List of Ramon Magsaysay Award winners

  • v
  • t
  • e

Pacem in Terris Peace and Freedom Award laureates

  • 1964 John Howard Griffin / John F. Kennedy
  • 1965 Martin Luther King Jr.
  • 1966 R. Sargent Shriver
  • 1967 A. Philip Randolph
  • 1968 James Groppi
  • 1969 Saul Alinsky
  • 1971 Dorothy Day
  • 1974 Harold Hughes
  • 1975 Hélder Câmara
  • 1976 Mother Teresa
  • 1979 Thomas Gumbleton
  • 1980 Crystal Lee Sutton / Ernest Leo Unterkoefler
  • 1982 George F. Kennan
  • 1983 Helen Caldicott
  • 1985 Joseph Bernardin
  • 1986 Maurice John Dingman
  • 1987 Desmond Tutu
  • 1989 Eileen Egan
  • 1990 Mairead Maguire
  • 1991 María Julia Hernández
  • 1992 César Chávez
  • 1993 Daniel Berrigan
  • 1995 Jim Wallis
  • 1996 Samuel Ruiz
  • 1997 Jim and Shelley Douglass
  • 2000 George G. Higgins
  • 2001 Lech Wałęsa
  • 2002 Gwen Hennessey / Dorothy Hennessey
  • 2004 Arthur Simon
  • 2005 Donald Mosley
  • 2007 Salim Ghazal
  • 2008 Marvin Mottet
  • 2009 Hildegard Goss-Mayr
  • 2010 John Dear
  • 2011 Álvaro Leonel Ramazzini Imeri
  • 2012 Kim Bobo
  • 2013 Jean Vanier
  • 2014 Simone Campbell
  • 2015 Thích Nhất Hạnh
  • 2016 Gustavo Gutiérrez
  • 2017 Widad Akreyi
  • 2019 Dalai Lama


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